Homeopathy, Unethical Quackery

Homeopathy was first developed in the late 1700’s by Samuel Hahnemann, a German doctor critical of the medical practice in his day. He had some quite legitimate criticisms. The state of medicine was dismal, poisonous and toxic “cures”, poor hygiene, bloodletting, and other treatments based on poor or no science abounded. These Hahnemann termed “allopathic medicine“, which has come to be a pejorative term for all evidence-based practice or “modern medicine”. As an alternative Hahnemann proposed the “law of similars”, a notion that substances that cause illness at normal concentrations can cure similar symptoms when given in highly diluted concentrations. For example caffeine is often given in highly dilute form to fight insomnia. How dilute you might ask, by the homeopaths own admission not a single molecule of the original substance remains in homeopathic preparations. This is all according to “law of infinitesimals”. A typical homeopathic preparation is 30c which is not 1 part in 30 rather 1 part in 10030! This means that ten ml of the original substance was mixed with a liter of water, then a drop of that resulting solution is mixed with a fresh liter of water, a drop of that solution is mixed with a fresh liter of water and so on, 30 times. At the point that the dilution process reaches about 12c there is only a chance that a single molecule of the original substance remains. Homeopaths explain this it is not a problem because “water has a memory” and through the shaking or “succussion” of the solution at each step of the dilution process the water molecules will retain a imprint of the original substance. Funny thing is that past a 14c dilution it is unlikely that even a single molecule of the original water used for the 1c solution remains. And as others have amusingly noted “If water has a memory then homeopathy is full of crap.”

At this point the solution has been diluted well past the Avogadro Limit, you will not find a single molecule of the original substance left. So what makes people think homeopathy actually works? Three factors can explain this, the placebo effect, regression to the mean, and post hoc reasoning. Homeopathy is often used for self-limiting illness, conditions that would likely have altered their course regardless of action. When someone gets a sprained ankle, uses homeopathic arnica gel and pills and rests for a couple days they are likely going to feel better, but no more than if they had a couple beers and rested instead. To get around this issue of personal bias researchers preform large scale studies, with the most rigorous body of research pointing to homeopathy being no more effective than sugar pills, this makes sense considering all they literally are is sugar pills.

So whats the harm if they are just sugar pills? Well homeopathy proponents often go as far to generally shun much of modern medicine to the point that homeopathic and other alternative medical “cures” for things such AIDS, cancer, malaria, and other serious diseases abound. When people put faith in homeopathy they may avoid proper and necessary medical care for themselves or a loved one, sadly many children have died as a result of the pseudo-scientific beliefs of their parents. People squander limited money and time on homeopathy, and in the case of many illnesses time can be critical. Not only do individuals squander resources on homeopathy but also entire businesses and governments, whether through their own beliefs or in order to pander to their constituency or consumer base. The resources put toward homeopathy could be far better served elsewhere such as in personal savings or insurance and improving or extending health care coverage rather than doling out sugar pills.

That all being said their are some things about homeopathy of special concern to vegans. First off, most homeopathic pills and tablets are not vegan, they contain lactose as a base, there are a few brands out there that use just sucrose but they are not that widely available, locatose-free liquid preparations are also available in some places if you must.

Secondly there are many preparations that use an animal derived ingredient, obscured by latin names, as the original substance, one very popular example of this is Oscillococcinum, a remedy made using the liver and heart of a Muscovy Duck diluted to 200c. If you still chose to use homeopathy you may want to take a course in latin and be careful to check labels.

A third concern is the continued imprisonment and killing of animals in the testing of homeopathy, despite claims to the contrary homeopathic medications are often the subject of cruel experiments such as:

  • In Rome, Italy, rats had blood injected into their feet to cause inflammation, then were dosed with the homeopathic anti-inflammatory Trumeel S and bled five hours later to assess response.
  • In Baroda, India, rats were poisoned with lead at various doses, then given two homeopathic drugs to assess response.
  • In Sao Paulo, Brazil, rats were fed a diet conducive to tooth decay to evaluate the effect of homeopathic medicines on their teeth.
  • At the University of Kalyani, India, liver cancer was induced in mice to assess treatment with homeopathic drugs.
  • In Melbourne, Australia, 52 mice were used to establish a lethal dose of hydrochloride injected into the abdomen; then 158 more mice were similarly injected to assess a homeopathic treatment.
  • In Bethesda, Maryland, 142 mice were infected with the lethal bacterium Francisella tularensis and observed for how long it took them to die with or without homeopathic doses of the bacterium.
  • In Rehovot, Israel, chronic wounds were inflicted on the ears of mice using dental wire, which was left hanging to cause persistent mechanical irritation. Wound size was measured daily with and without homeopathic treatment.

Given the total lack of scientific plausibility and mountain of evidence against homeopathy it is a wonder these proposals even make it past the Animal Care and Use Committee, in fact it makes me question the integrity of those very bodies.

The last concern is the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine. As with children, when you are making a medical decision for a canine or feline friend you are responsible for that choice being based upon the best science and most accurate information. To attempt to treat a serious medical problem in a companion animal with clearly ineffective “medicine” is not a choice one can make ethically.

All I have left to say is in my book homeopathy isn’t vegan, it’s 100% bull crap!

Further resources:  Skeptvet – The Science of Homeopathy

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38 Responses to “Homeopathy, Unethical Quackery”

  1. HugoMouse Says:

    pls note that not only canine and feline patients are mistreated with non-vegan useless sugar pills :).
    Homeopathic globuli may only be suitable to treat hypoglycemic shocks in diabetics who were given insulin overdoses.

  2. Edanator Says:

    Thanks for posting! It’s sad how unaware the general public is about homeopathy, it’s principles and it’s complete lack of evidence. I’ve had several discussions with vegans feeding their non-human animal friends homeopathic remedies. My argument is that they (the humans) are not only ignorant, but also cause their friends unnecessary harm (albeit unknowingly) when trying to cure disease with sugar pills. Of course, their response is not to stop homeopathy, but to attack Big Pharma, question my motives, or to respond by anecdotes…

    Here’s Randi’s latest challenge to the homeopaths. :-)
    http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/jref-news/1208-feb5video.html

  3. Nancy Malik Says:

    Real is scientific homeopathy. It cures even when Conventional Allopathic Medicine (CAM) fails. Evidence-based modern homeopathy is a nano-medicine bringing big results for everyone

    • Guy Chapman (@SceptiGuy) Says:

      Aha, the Malik-bot with its perennial comment. Time you came up with a new comment spam, Nancy.

      There is, of course, no such thing as “scientific homoeopathy”, homeopathy is pseudoscience which is inconsistent with everything we have discovered about the nature of matter since Hahnemann’s time. Around half of all the Nobel prizes in physics in the last century were awarded for work that directly contradicts the core tenets of homeopathy, and as far as I can tell 100 percent of the medicine Nobels were also awarded for work that goes against it.

      Anyone who can provide credible evidence of homeopathy’s validity gets a million dollars from JREF and a free trip to Stockholm. We’re waiting…

  4. Edanator Says:

    Nancy: Simply saying it works doesn’t make it so. You have to show us the evidence.

  5. Twinarp Says:

    Dr Nancy, the Wildly Imaginative Medical Practice (WIMP) that you practice is beautifully described as nano-medicine. Too small to be detected, not associated with actual medicine and dangerous nonsense. Long surviving nonsense stays nonsense, no matter how many time you use pretend methods and names. (ask her about Natrum Muriaticum). It is table salt, but Homeopaths think it is medicinal.

  6. Maria_Myrback Says:

    Tired of seeing homeopathic products on your local shelves? The JREF petition to get these “remedies” out of stores is still available for signing here: http://www.change.org/petitions/tell-retail-pharmacies-to-come-clean-about-homeopathic-products

    Please take action. You CAN make a difference.

  7. Dave Says:

    How sad that one blinkered person is so outspokenly critical of something he doesn’t understand. Perhaps you haven’t been privy to the miracles that can occur with homeopathy when the general medical practice fails entirely or causes the death of the patient.

    Try looking up iatrogenic death in the United States and write an informative article about that. Maybe you would behold people seeking an alternative to professionally licensed killing in a different light.

    I’ve experienced several sides of the debate and I prefer to seek professional homeopathic assistance rather than gambling with a cocktail of chemicals with side effects often worse than the condition they purport to treat.

    But, we all have to learn and none so effectively as through experience.

    namaste

  8. Gopiballava Says:

    Dave: can you elaborate specifically about what skepticalvegan doesn’t understand? Is his explanation of the theory behind homeopathy factually incorrect?

    Also, your non-sequitor about iatrogenic deaths does not actually demonstrate the efficacy of homeopathy in any way.

    What I would ask you is, what have you done to rule out the placebo effect? If you haven’t done that, I’m sure you can find some people willing to help figure out an easy test you can do. I’m perfectly serious; I’ve been wrong before and am open to being wrong again.

  9. Mommal Says:

    Fabulous information. Thank you.

  10. adde Says:

    I’ve lived amongst primitivists for so long I started thinking there were no rational vegans (apart from myself). I’m very happy to be proven wrong!

  11. Dave Says:

    Sorry it’s taken a few days to get back to this. The factually incorrect element of the original post is the statement that there are no studies that demonstrate the efficacy of homeopathy. Homeopathy has been devised and thoroughly tested by people. Proving a remedy takes months or even years of painstaking study. The willing ‘provers’ administer the infinitesimal doses of the drug to themselves and take incredibly detailed notes of their daily lives, which may include any reactions they have to the drug and any changes in their lives that are noticeable by others. These notes are then cross referred with those of other provers and over a period of years a ‘picture’ of the drug and its affinities is created. A homeopathic drug is subsequently portrayed as an entity with a multitude of specific characteristics. True homeopathy is about finding the picture that mostly closely matches the characteristics of the patient. It may take hours or days to find the best picture, but then the effects are often rapid.

    Proving remedies began in the late 1700’s and continues to this day. Pick up a copy of James Kent’s repertory and you will see for yourself the detail to be found.

    Unlike allopathic medicines there are no ‘side effects’, but there are some people that say that homeopathy is totally harmless. It is true that in the vast majority of cases it is harmless, but I have encountered people who buy first aid homeopathy over the counter for a specific ailment and continue to take the pills until they have all gone, believing in ignorance that they have to finish a ‘course’ of treatment. This method can actually cause the person to prove the drug and end up worse than they started. I would add to this that counteracting the drug is quick and easy in most cases.

    I should add here that you should NEVER give homeopathy to someone who is dangerously ill. Only a really experienced homeopath should attempt such conditions.

    As for the placebo effect – it doesn’t work with animals! The animal doesn’t know about the placebo effect and our many animals will try and avoid administration of any drug!

    I have personally applied homeopathy to one of my animals who had a sequestered bone. A chunk of dead bone and tissue trapped inside a new growth. She was seriously ill and the vets and referrals all agreed she had zero chance and advised euthanasia. I took her home and sort help from people more experienced than I. It took 18 months of applied homeopathy and ALLOWING’ the body to heal. She is now totally healthy and you would never know that she had been so ill. In this case, allopathy would try to stop the superation of abscesses, whereas energy medicine encourages this action, in most cases.

    I have many other instances of the efficacy of homeopathy with animals, but I also have many failures. Those failures are my fault and only demonstrate how much I don’t know.

    My iatrogenic comment was a little out of context, purely to show how we are taught to believe in the healing powers of doctors and surgeons, when they are only just beginning to understand the human and animal mechanism. They too have many failures and are lead by an industry that is driven by profit. If pharmaceuticals were NFP corps, we would see a very different industry! I once spent almost $10,000 on surgery for an animal only for her to die from an infection caused during the operation. Faith can be a wonderful thing, but it can also be the most dangerous aspect of your life.

    Keep an open mind. Homeopathy cannot repair my hand like a surgeon did, but it can do many amazing things that a doctor cannot.

    namaste

    • DT_1975 Says:

      Sorry Dave, but homeopathic provings have been shown to only produce a placebo response: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1296951/

      The problem with provings as you have described them is that they are heavily susceptible to expectation bias. That means that because the prover and people around them expect to see symptoms, they do.

      Also, if you sometimes see improvement in your animals, and sometimes do not after giving them Homeopathy, then have considered that it might not your fault when it doesn’t work, but the overall results are consistent with what you would expect to see if Homeopathy doesn’t work? Your results sound random to me.

      Jai Shri Krishna

    • skepticalvegan Says:

      “The factually incorrect element of the original post is the statement that there are no studies that demonstrate the efficacy of homeopathy.”

      I never said that, what I said was “researchers preform large scale studies, with the most rigorous body of research pointing to homeopathy being no more effective than sugar pills”

      See the nuance there, “most rigorous”? There are plenty of studies showing effect from homeopathy, but they often have poor methodology and are outnumbered by large well controlled studies showing no effect.

      Heck, the basic scientific plausibility behind homeopathy should be enough to convince most folks, its just ridiculous and it doesn’t stand up to scientific testing.

      As for your statement about the placebo effect in animals, you’re simply wrong. Might I suggest some further reading.
      http://skeptivet.blogspot.com/2009/07/placebo-effect-in-animals-and-their.html
      http://www.skepdic.com/placebo.html

    • Guy Chapman Says:

      I don’t think anyone’s said that there are no studies that show homeopathy works, it’s just that the better designed a study is, the more likely it is to conclude that hoemopathy works solely as a placebo. Which is a hair-splitting distinction, there being no practical difference between working as a placebo and not working as a medicine – the two are equivalent (though homeopaths might like to believe otherwise).

      On the one hand we have a theory – placebo plus experimental bias – which fits the observed facts, is supported by review studies and requires no changes to the law of physics. On the other we have a system that requires us to believe five or six things that have low to zero evidential support and are certainly not generalisable. Occam’s Razor is your friend here.

    • Anna Says:

      Your evidence in favor of homeopathy’s efficacy on animals is that you administered it to an injured animal and it took 18 months to recover? Sounds like it probably would have recovered in 18 months no matter what, especially if you were providing the care and attention you had been providing alongside the placebo. The reason homeopathy seems to work on so many self-limiting conditions is because they are self-limiting — i.e., they go away on their own. But 18 months is a long time — it sounds like a lot could have gone on over that course of time.

      Your description of the rigor involved in “proving” remedies is not a description of the scientific method, you know. It may be painstakingly detailed, but it is not science. And as someone else mentioned, such a method is subject to expectation bias. When you are paying extra attention to your body, you’re going to notice more things. This is true for Western medicine as well, which is why so many people are subject to the “nocebo” effect, in which they experience “side effects” even if they are unknowingly taking the placebo. There seems to be some confusion over correlation and causation — just because two events are correlated in time does not mean there is a causal relationship between the two.

      You will always be able to cherry-pick studies that have positive results for homeopathy. This is because, to be considered statistically significant, there must be a 95 percent chance that the results could not have happened by coincidence. This means that out of 20 studies, you’re likely to have one study that shows positive results by coincidence. However, the preponderance of evidence shows that homeopathy is no more effective than placebo.

      Obviously homeopathy won’t normally cause harm, since it’s just water. The only way it can cause harm is if you use it to the exclusion of evidence-based medicine.

    • dante Says:

      Homeopathy KILLS literally… Drugs have no side effects bcoz there is no drug in it.

  12. Dave Says:

    …….btw I’ve also been vegan for 20 years! and am as skeptical as they come!

  13. Gopiballava Says:

    Hi Dave,

    Thanks for coming back! Email notifications are on for me so I don’t have to check the site just in case :)

    The placebo effect can happen in animals:
    http://www.thebark.com/content/dogs-and-placebo-effect
    (there are two research studies linked, but sadly I don’t have access to those journals)
    If you think about it, merely giving an animal attention can be helpful. If the efficacy of a treatment is subjective, then the person rating how well a treatment works can be influenced. When you look at a sick, suffering animal and you know that animal is the one not receiving treatment, you will likely feel pessimistic which can affect judgment.

    Regarding homeopathic provings: The real question is whether succussion does anything, especially when repeated so many times that there are literally no atoms left.

    Some homeopathic sleeping pills use caffeine, for example. I perform provings of this substance on a quite regular basis. The next stage, the law of similars, is where I believe that homeopathy is incorrect.

    There have been positive studies showing that homeopathy works. There have been negative studies. There is a negative correlation between how well performed a study is and how big its effect. In other words: better placebo controls tend to result in homeopathy not working.

    In addition to this, there is literally zero original substance in a remedy at standard dilutions (I’m ignoring Zinc 1X – that isn’t real homeopathy). Physicists have been researching structure of water and there is no mechanism known that could cause any effect at all, let alone a consistent therapeutic one.

    Finally, regarding the “taking meds too long” effect: Can that happen if you never had the problem in the first place?

  14. Bipedal Tetrapod Says:

    To put it into context, diluting 1 mL sequentially 30 times in 100 mL is like diluting 1mL in a spherical volume of water 130 *light years* across:
    http://bipedalia.wordpress.com/2011/02/13/running-the-numbers-on-homeopathic-dilution/

  15. Dave Says:

    You know everybody is right in this debate. Outcomes vary according to observation. Doesn’t this sound like quantum physics? There are some who have focused their attention on the science of homeopathy and believe now that it is indeed quantum theory and perhaps we will never fully understand it.

    I am not here to convert anyone to my way of thinking about energy medicine. I have seen the effects countless times and even today I have witnessed another striking example. However, here is a little experiment that you can try, of course with the whopping great disclaimer attached that you take full responsibility for your own well being!

    Try proving a remedy for yourself – let’s select a remedy that might provide significant, but not devastating results …perhaps Cantharis. Pop along to your local Homeopthic supplier and buy a bottle. Whatever potency they have except for mega doses that have M after the number. If you get a 6x, 6c 12x, 12c or similar number, take one pill 3 times a day on a clean tongue (not within 15mins of eating, drinking or brushing teeth). If you pick a 30c take it hourly on a clean tongue or however often you like – it won’t make much difference really.

    On a side note here, I no longer take the remedy orally! I make a water solution and place a drop or two on the heads of my patients or myself. But tradition states that it should be taken orally, so let’s do it by the book.

    Now if you are an absolute non-believer and really think that homeopathy is just a sugar pill suitable for diabetics, it shouldn’t have any effect. Right?

    Oh – perhaps you’d better run back to the store and pick up a bottle of Camphor30c whilst you’re at it – just in case!

    If you experience any disquieting sensations STOP taking the Cantharis and take 3 doses of the Camphor. That should neutralise the effects ….just in case you do experience something.

    If you don’t experience anything after a week. Then you can happily remain a total skeptic and be proud of it, because you are right after all.

    If you do experience something though, then don’t blame me:-() And to make this a real experiment you are not allowed to know what the effects might be – okay?

    In the meantime, because my own experiments mostly work the way i expect them to, then I will continue to manipulate the quarks of life energy and look for healings I expect to see or see the healings I expect to find or even imagine that I’m doing some good to prevent myself from feeling totally helpless.

    Let me know how you get on.

    namaste

  16. Gopiballava Says:

    Dave: No, everybody is not right. No, quantum theory does not support your observations.

    Your proposed test is entirely unblinded. My claim was that the placebo effect is the primary way that homeopathy appears to work. For you to suggest an unblinded test indicates to me that you don’t really understand the ways people can be mislead.

    Finally, let me remind you that, while quantum theory does not explain your observations of macroscopic systems, psychology does. Confirmation bias and expectation, amongst other things, can easily and adequately what you have seen.

    You are free to have your own post-modernist solipsistic interpretation of reality, but understand that even your own observations do not support your interpretation

  17. Dave Says:

    If my observations prove it for me then it works for me. I don’t have to sell it.

    But good luck with the leeches and blood-letting anyway:-)))

    namaste

    • Gopiballava Says:

      What I’m saying is that your observations of what you have given and what people or animals have had happen to them do not prove your conclusions.

      You have witnessed events, and you have drawn conclusions. Your conclusions are not supported.

      Your comments about leeches and blood-letting belie your real mentality. Your beliefs are more akin to religion than anything else.

      You say that you’re not selling anything. Why did you come here if not to express your opinion? Why do you backpedal and try to justify your inability to provide evidence for your opinion?

      You may call yourself a skeptic, but a skeptical mentality combined with your level of ignorance will not lead to reality.

      Also, FYI, leeches are an appropriate treatment for certain kinds of wounds. You can get certified disease free leeches. The old style use of them was not evidence-based.

    • DT_1975 Says:

      Dave,

      I’m sorry I may come across as being a bit rude, but as I have already said, the problem with relying on your observations as proof is that we are all susceptible to expectation bias. This includes me and you. It means you and me remember the results we expect to see, and not those we don’t. With respect to your observations, as a scientist I would suggest you would have seen the same results if you had been taking placebo pills, but not known this, and believed it was a real homeopathic remedy.

      The scientific method has been developed over many centuries to overcome our human expectation biases and prejudices and to separate the real results from our imagined results. It let’s us see beyond our limited senses and really understand the universe.

      When you apply this scientific approach to Homeopathy, it repeatedly shows that Homeopathy is no better than a placebo.

  18. Nancy Malik Says:

    Evidence of homeopathy is undeniably positive and consistent. It’s a human evidence of experience, gathered from a real-world observation in a real-world setting (not in an ideal artificial laboratory) giving real-world solutions.

    • Gopiballava Says:

      Nancy,

      Laboratories don’t emit magic fields stopping homeopathy from working.

      Could you explain specifically why you believe that homeopathy fails under controlled tests but aspirin, albuterol, insulin, methylphenidate, etc. etc. do work under controlled tests?

      Most “lab” tests of homeopathy are not artificial; they’re the same sort of thing you’d get if you bought a remedy at a store. You buy a bottle of pills and consume them. The only difference is you are given the bottle by a clinician and you don’t know whether they are real or not. At the end of the test they see if you feel better or not. If homeopathy and placebo are the same, well, that’s a failure.

    • Anna Says:

      I don’t think you can use a word like “undeniable” in this context. Homeopathy’s efficacy is pretty darn deniable!

      The “human evidence of experience” you speak of can be riddled with all kinds of biases and cognitive errors. Our own perceptions can trick us in ways that we’re not even aware of. That’s why the scientific method was formulated in the first place — as a way to control for the tricks our perceptions can play on us. I can “feel” like a homeopathic product worked on me, but I have no way of knowing one way or another; this is because I can’t have another “me” in an alternate universe to compare my results with. This is where experimental groups and control groups come in, and why I put a lot more stock in randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials than someone’s very strong feeling that a homeopathic preparation based on the nonexistent Oscillococcus actually works.

  19. cavall de quer Says:

    Great to see some sense about this dangerous nonsense, well done!

  20. cavall de quer Says:

    As well as rafts of pills that almost certainly do not have marketing authorisation – from homeopathic “dolphin sonar” and “rubella vaccine” to “mammary gland’”, “ayers rock” and homeopathic “AZT”

    – from a recent “Quackometer” post: just in case anyone still doubts that this wretched quackery is oblivious to animal lives…..

  21. Nancy Malik Says:

    A. Basic Fundamental Research
    B. High Dilution Research
    C. Clinical Research
    1. Double-blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial
    3. Double-Blind Studies
    4. Cohort/Observational/Pilot Studies
    5. Systematic Reviews & Meta Analysis
    D.
    6. Homeopathy as a Genetic Medicine
    7. Evidence for specific disease conditions
    8. Homeopathy superior to conventional
    9. Homeopathy cost-effective than conventional
    10. Homeopathy equals conventional
    11. Homeopathy superior to placebo
    12. Homeopathy improving quality of life
    E.
    13. Evidence-based homeopathy
    14. To distinguish one homeopathy medicine from another
    15. To distinguish homeopathy medicine from water
    F.
    16. Animal Studies
    17. Plant Studies

    Papers related to the above domains are available at http://knol.google.com/k/scientific-research-in-homeopathy Which of them you would like to see?

  22. vegan pianist Says:

    “A man with an experience is not at the mercy of a man with an argument.”
    The first time I went to a homeopath I was about 13 and my tonsils were swollen and I felt I was coming down with something (I´ve never had tonsillitis but i guessed that´s what it was going to be). That very day, after taking a remedy, my tonsils were normal again and I was feeling much better. The next day there was no sign of any illness.
    A few years later I had a nose bleeding problem – for a few weeks my nose bled almost every other day and I could´t predict when it would happen. once it even happened while I was playing piano in a house concert! Then I went to the homeopath again and since taking the remedy my nose didn´t bleed again!! (i think the remedy was phosphorous)
    I´ve known a few people who grew up homeopathically – imagine that, they never took any allopathic medicine, and are healthy people!

  23. Waiter, There’s Woo in My Food: Sri Chinmoy « Skeptical Vegan Says:

    [...] Chinmoy reportedly advised followers generally against doctors and dentists as well, preferring homeopathy and meditation instead. Followers were also often advised to leave behind successful careers, [...]

  24. Reuben Says:

    C ≠ 1000.

  25. Reuben Says:

    “This means that one ml of the original substance was mixed with a liter of water.”

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